How does an

atom behave?

    The Rope Model of the Atom

    The thread version explains several properties and behaviors of the atom.

    a. Why the electron does not fall into the nucleus.

    The mechanics explain this phenomenon with word wizardry:

          "as the electron approaches the tiny volume of space occupied by the nucleus, its potential
           energy dives down... and its kinetic energy... shoots up... the fall in potential energy is just
           twice the kinetic energy, and the electron dances at an average distance that corresponds
           to the Bohr radius."

    It is word wizardry because this is not an explanation. It is a description and this fellow is entirely oblivious to
    the difference. The mathematician has not provided a PHYSICAL interpretation to the phenomenon. He is not
    telling us what physical object prevents the electron bead from falling into the nucleus. What he has done is
    DESCRIBE that potential and kinetic energies serve as limits. Certainly, he cannot use the word energy as a
    physical barrier because energy is an abstract concept (i.e., a property of objects, a scalar quantity, the ability
    to do work on objects, an attribute of a substance). Therefore, any explanation of how electrons avoid spiraling
    into the nucleus should be devoid of the word energy. There is no such thing as energy in Physics.

    To add insult to injury, the mathematician urges you to reject classical visualizations. In few words, this means
    that he wants you to abandon rationality. You are not supposed to think of Quantum Mechanical in rational
    terms because he has already decided for you that we can't make sense of the workings of the Universe. That
    knowledge is reserved solely for God. Therefore, he doesn't even try to rationalize the subatomic world. He
    just describes what he observes indirectly through visible objects. This is how the mechanic ended up with the
    planetary model of the atom. He envisions balls orbiting other balls. He replaces these with surrealistic visions
    of entities that are simultaneously waves and particles and of particles that are located at two places at once.

          "according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle... a particle as tiny as the electron
           cannot be regarded as having either a definite location or momentum... either the
           location or the momentum of a quantum particle such as the electron can be known
           as precisely as desired"

    Of course, the only way he can make his case is through authority. Therefore, he has no choice but to tell
    you that all of this has been proven in the lab by people who won Nobel Prizes. "You have nothing to argue.
    It has already been proven and settled. You just need to memorize the stuff for the test."

    Under the Rope Model of the atom, the issue is easily resolved. There is a physical interpretation that anyone
    can visualize without invoking the amusing spirits and ghosts proposed by Quantum Mechanics. The electron
    shell is what the chemists have always used in the lab: a balloon that encapsulates the atom. They call it an
    orbital, a peculiar word that is supposed to insinuate many 'orbits' of an electron bead. The mechanics actually
    think of it as a region within which they can find an electron bead. Here we get rid of the bead altogether. The
    electron is just the balloon: the infamous orbital of Chemistry. We don't need the discrete little Quantum bead
    for anything. This architecture incorporates de Broglie's ribbon, Schrödinger's wave, and Born's cloud models
    into a single architecture that visually and objectively shows why the electron doesn't fall into the nucleus.
    Imagine a balloon encapsulating a spiked ball with gazillions of spikes. The balloon has no chance of falling to
    the center of the atom.
A balloon encapsulating a spiked
ball is quite a stable system.
The electron is not a bead as the
Quantum Standard Model
proposes. An electron is a shell
much like the one chemists use
to explain hybridization.

    b. Quantum Jump

    The amusing two-dimensional Quantum model of Bohr's leap should make anyone laugh. A 3D ball rolls around
    its orbit and suddenly, without cause, by magic, falls or jumps to a different orbit. The mathematicians describe
    that the particle has gained or lost 'energy'. Again, energy is a concept, take your pick: a property, the ability,
    a quantity, an attribute. It is irrational to propose that properties and abilities are physically absorbed like dust
    by a vacuum cleaner!

    So why does the bead go back and forth? What entity pushes and pull on it?

    The rope model of the atom, on the other hand, simply has the atom pumping like a tiny heart. It expands and
    contracts. This is the famous 'Quantum Jump'. We can now visualize why any location (i.e., 'point' on the
    surface the balloon) at any instant is found either in a lower or higher 'energy level'.
Quantum's amusing 2D model of electron bead jump

The electron bead of the planetary atom spontaneously
falls to a lower orbit when it loses a concept called
'energy' and rises when it gains 'energy'. What object
pushes the bead to a lower 'energy level'? What
mechanism pulls it back to the higher level?
The Rope Model of Quantum Leap is straight
forward. The atom is a tiny balloon that contracts
and expands. By doing so, it torques the rope that
connects it to another atom. That torsion is what we
call light. Any location on the surface of the balloon
(electron shell) is either at a lower or higher 'energy
level'. The atom is a tiny heart pumping 3D 'torsions'
to every atom in the Universe.

    c. Why a p-orbital runs through the nucleus.

    The mathematicians illustrate the negative electron bead of the p-orbitals orbiting or moving right through the
    center of the atom and back. How can this be if electrons are negative and protons are positive? The
    electrons should never be able to come out. They should stick to the protons like two magnets or not get too
    close to begin with. How do the mechanics answer this dilemma?

    One chemist explains

          "So how does the electron get from one lobe to the other if it can never pass through the
           plane of the nucleus? At this introductory level you just have to accept that it does! If you
           want to find out more, read about the wave nature of electrons."

    Don't bother! As you can already imagine, the mechanics convert the electron into a wave and stretch it to
    the other side.

    The problem is that there is no physical object called 'a' wave. Wave is what a flag does. The mechanics
    simply have to tell the crowd what it is that is waving and by what physical process a bead converts to 'a'
According to Quantum Mechanics, the p-orbital is a figure-8 region
(marked in green) in which we can find an electron bead. The
problem Quantum encounters is that the p-orbital passes through
the nucleus. The orbital is the region in which we can find an
electron. This means that the negative electron can be found near
or in the center of the atom where positive protons dwell.

Some mechanics tell you that the bead doesn't go near the nucleus
and conveniently round off the lobes near the nucleus to suggest
that the electrons merely get near there. Then they deflect your
attention from the problem by continuing to blab about the fact that
the probabilities of finding one near there are lesser than finding
one far away.
They elude the issue. We want to have clarified without blinking an eye and without eluding the question
whether Quantum states that the negative bead passes through the positive center of the atom. The
p-orbitals calculated by the Schrodinger equation take us exactly to the center of the atom!

The smart mechanics solve the problem by converting the electron into a wave and stretching this
'thingy' to the other side. MAGIC! The mechanic then tells you that we will never be able to understand
how the subatomic world works because our mind is to God's like a cat's is to ours. We simply don't
have the intelligence to comprehend the workings of the Universe. "
But keep funding my research so
that we can continue to develop interesting gadgets for you.
Under the Rope Hypothesis, orbitals are balloons formed by countless
threads. There is no negative or positive, in great measure, because
Mother Nature doesn't understand what negative and positive mean.
The mechanics have made such a simple phenomenon so complicated.

The reason that professors are able to model hybrid orbitals and
molecular bonds
with balloons is that this is exactly what atoms are
and look like.
SEM and AFM closeups of atoms do not show
orbiting beads, and it would be a miracle if these
machines could make images of an abstract
concept called 'orbital' (i.e., a
REGION where >>>
the electron can be found). What these images
show, instead, is what atoms are in reality:


We are staring at actual pictures of the electron
shell weaved by countless EM Threads.

(Images originally created by IBM Corporation)
The Rope Model of the structure of the atom
The Rope Model of the atom also describes the structure
and explains the behavior of the neutron.


Mathematical Physics      
The Rope Hypothesis    

Nila and Bill      
Ye Olde You Stupid Relativist

Bill's papers  or find them @  Academia
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