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**Copyright © by ****Nila**** Gaede 200****8**

**1. **** ****A listing of properties of a physical object.**

**(Syn: characterize, depict, portray, sketch)**

**In Science, we use ****adjectives**** to describe objects.**** W****e use ****adverbs**** to qualify ****or characterize ****motion.**

**The establishment erroneously equates Science with a description, usually with a mathematical description. A **

**scientific theory absolutely requires an ****explanation****. Without an explanation, the proponent does not show an **

**understanding**** of the phenomenon. When we say that a pen fell to the ground because it was pulled by **

**gravity we are ****narrating****. We are simply stating what happened chronologically in objective terms. We will be **

**explaining the day we can tell the jury what invisible entity underlies gravity and how it actually comes in **

**physical contact with the pen. Only then will we have understanding.**** A mathematical expression is neither a **

**description nor an explanation. The purpose of numbers, variables and equations is to ****symbolize**** (stand for) a **

**dynamic concept. The number 5 stands for counting several times. The variable ***x*** means that you are **

**supposed to replace x with a series of numbers. The equation x = y + 1 is a shorthand for a given location on **

**an itinerary.**

**Einstein offered an explanation as opposed to a description for gravity. He suggested that ****objects are not **

**really pulled, but that they roll or slide along curved space. Einstein ****proposed a ****ball-on-canvas**** mechanism **

**that would justify why objects gravitate towards ****each other.**

**Problems with Einstein's theory include that ****space is not a physical object****, the ****sandbox paradox****, and that he **

**has no way of justifying why a celestial body ****moves ****'****downwards****'.**

**Conversely, Milgrom merely offered a petty mathematical ****symbolism**** known as ****MOND**** for ****the ****galaxy rotation **

**problem****. Mond is not a ****scientific**** theory because it is just that: a ****characterization**** without an explanation or **

**understanding. Assuming that the mathematics of ****MOND is correct, we still have no clue regarding the **

**mechanism that underlies gravity. ****Without an explanation, MOND is ****pure ****poppycock.**** It gives us no insight **

**into what causes celestial objects to behave the way they do.**